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This is a larger uncertainty than usually occurs on an emissions trend. In the biological sectors, the levels of uncertainties may be higher than for other sectors. Inclusion of sinks in a QELRO naturally implies inclusion in both the reference year and in the budget period.

Inter-American Sea Turtle Convention

No because of most of the information is too subjective. Such enhancement of removals by sinks is anthropogenic.

Australia believes that the Guidelines should be clp3 for the full budget period, with any new Guidelines being applied for the next period. Soils data are much more sparse. Nevertheless, given the variety of methods currently available for preparing inventories for each anthropogenic source and sink, and the different uncertainties associated with each method, the issue of uncertainties needs to be addressed prior to d2 start of the first budget period.

For clarity, all further references in this response to sources and sinks refer to anthropogenic sources and sinks, and are made in the context of the definition of anthropogenic sinks as stated above.

These systematic uncertainties do not necessarily imply similar levels of uncertainties in measuring changes over time, as with standardised and comparable methodologies such errors tend to cancel out.

Determinations of compliance will be based on each Party’s emissions inventory, which should be prepared using methods designed specifically for this purpose; i.

The Framework Convention also defines a sink as ” any process, activity or mechanism which removes a greenhouse gas, an aerosol, or a precursor of a greenhouse gas from the atmosphere “.


It is vital that a protocol to the Convention provides strong incentive for enhancement of carbon dioxide removal by sinks in the future. The secretariat has made every effort to ensure the correct reproduction of the texts as submitted. Defined as “A statement of a range cop33 values of the quantity in question, usually expressed as a number to be added to or subtracted from the basic value, or simply cpo3 a pair of numbers expressing the limits of the range.

Given that varying levels of uncertainty will exist, Australia believes that use of the same methodology over an accounting period uniformity of r22 should provide a cp3 measure acceptable for QELROs. Applying such criteria Parties should, on a case by case basis, justify why their actions qualify as removal through anthropogenic enhancement d2 sinks.

Australia believes that the accepted IPCC Guidelines provide a reasonable standardised approach e2 dealing with uncertainties in inventory data as presented in national communications. Increased emissions from land use change would be subtracted from the estimated uptake from projects aimed and enhancing sinks.

MOP1 will be in a better position to judge adequacy, based on information from the in depth reviews of Second National Communications. In this respect, Australia notes that its inventory figure for has been revised three times.

Uncertainty is inherent in estimations of GHG emissions and sinks from all sectors.

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The answer depends on the modalities, rules and guidelines to be agreed by the first MOP. Including sinks would interfere with management and utilisation of land resources including forest. Subject to relevant modalities, rules and guidelines, to be decided by the first MOP, Parties that apply the methodologies referred to under Article 4 may count their enhancement of removals by sinks against their aggregate anthropogenic CO 2 equivalent emissions by sources under Article 3.

At this time Canada believes that no limit should be placed on anthropogenic sinks in a QELRO since the goal of the Convention is to reduce atmospheric concentrations and how that is achieved should not be predetermined.


The base year for measuring emissions needs to be the same for both sources and sinks. This issue has not been adequately dealt with. Australia notes the collection of greenhouse data as presented in greenhouse gas inventory is a relatively new science, and that for some categories of emissions eg biological sources estimations have much refinement before they can match the precision of the energy sectors.

Currently undefined is the term anthropogenic. Uncertainty in the emission estimates for each sector in Australia’s National Greenhouse Gas Inventory can be summarised as follows:.

It is to be noted that while the Guidelines will remain the same for a budget period, refinement of the data in that period can still occur, with revised and updated statistics published. No, for explanation see paragraph 6. The objective of the Convention Article 2 implies that greenhouse mitigation action should cover areas that impact on the greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere.

Applying the criteria to be provided by the IPCC see response to question 4 aboveParties should through their national reporting include all relevant categories.

Establishment and Operation of a Permanent Secretariat. The review process has to be comprehensive, however, to ensure consistency and comparability.

Establishment of a Permanent Secretariat. In the context of QELROs, anthropogenic enhancement of sinks should be defined rather narrowly to include only direct actions such as the planting of forests, application of fertilizers to forests, exclusion of grazing or revegetation activities.

In accordance with the procedure for miscellaneous documents, these submissions are attached and are reproduced in the language in which they were received and without formal editing.